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Not long afterward, he punched out two coworkers in a photo lab because they wore black arm hamlshire to honor the Vietnamese dead. He avoided war movies. Grow moved to Escott Hampshire Kayt for decades lived an ordinary aKty Then, during the Gulf War, he Katy new hampshire escort American missiles explode on television and thought about his year-old son. He would drive fast for miles, going nowhere, or hampshure a motel room and sit in the dark for days to keep his anger away from his wife and son. He was put on anti-depressants and anti-anxiety drugs. I love my son, but I have a very hard time saying it. I love my wife, but I isolate. I wish they could do loboto-mies and get rid of it.

But talk therapy has not done the trick, neither for veterans nor for many survivors of torture, severe childhood abuse and other trauma. PTSD is not only an emotional response to troubling events, it is the expression of a persistent disregulation of body and brain chemistry. The research so far suggests that moments of overwhelming terror can alter brain chemistry for decades, and may kill brain cells crucial to memory. Whether this process can be reversed is not yet known. It is clear, however, that therapists who want to treat PTSD effectively are about to venture into an unfamiliar landscape.

Grant Bosse: Gun control narrative takes some hits

Here, all of the signposts are in a foreign language. The metaphors have changed. It requires an understanding of systems theory more complex and subtle than anything most family therapists bargained for. But hidden in this uncharted landscape may be ways of alleviating a form of suffering that has only recently come to light. About 5 to 10 percent of us can expect to suffer PTSD symptoms at some point in our lives: Studies suggest that chronic PTSD a condition lasting more than 6 months affects 15 percent of Vietnam combat veterans and 50 percent of Cambodian refugee youth who Katy new hampshire escort genocide.

People with PTSD complain of almost unbearable states of physiological arousal: In paradoxical, oscillating fashion, sleeplessness and hypervigilance alternate with numbness and withdrawal; amnesia coexists with flashbacks. This, in turn, can set off a cascade of negative effects, disrupting relationships and driving people to self-medicate with alcohol or Lubbock tx gay singles. Six weeks after being raped in Des Moines, Iowa, Nancy Ziegenmayer was so afraid at Katy new hampshire escort that her husband had to escort her from the bedroom to the bathroom.

In California, a computer-graphics artist injured while driving on a rain-swept freeway jumped at unexpected noises for months afterward, raged at her husband over trivial things and was too frightened to ride her bike. A New Haven woman who had never told anyone about being raped at 12 by her father appeared at a psychiatric emergency room at the age of 18, overwhelmed by panic attacks. At the first snowfall of the year, a retired Chicago policeman who survived the merciless winter slaughter in Belgium during the Battle of the Bulge becomes unusually quiet and withdrawn; he once told his daughter that he sees blood on the snow. For more than years, doctors and therapists have wondered whether such symptoms were neurophysiologi-cal, emotional or merely a sign of borderline personality disorder or weak character.

Naming it was one thing, but understanding its mechanics much less, Auch france escort massage it effectively was something else again. But they were Kremlin-watchers, trying to map the contents of a black box they could not open. It is clear that PTSD is more than a symbolic and existential crisis of meaning and human betrayal. Just as a single Martini can stimulate singing and laughter, while a fifth of Jack Daniels brings on depression, brain chemicals can help or harm, depending on the dose.

People can do extraordinary things, like lift a car that is crushing a loved one or push a baby carriage out of the path of a speeding train. When stress becomes overwhelming, too much epinephrine and norepinephrine induce confusion and impair learning and memory. The negative effects of too much epinephrine and norepinephrine are both immediate and delayed. Although the underlying brain chemistry is not understood, repeated adrenaline rushes seem to progressively sensitize brain chemistry, provoking ever-greater floods of adrenaline at lower thresholds.

Laboratory animals who have been previously shocked release even more norepinephrine when shocked again. Emotional reactivity is a hallmark of PTSD. Years after trauma, its sufferers startle at the slightest surprise and remain easily frazzled. The fight-or-flight response is disregulated; the nervous system is always on alert. A study of the urine of PTSD veterans found chronically elevated levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Heightened norepinephrine levels were also reported recently by National Institutes of Health researcher Frank Putnam in an ongoing longitudinal study of 80 sexually abused girls aged 7 to The hyperactive fight-or-flight response can also be activated by specific reminders of trauma: Sometimes, one cannot talk oneself out of fear.

Floods of epinephrine and norepinephrine not only increase and accompany emotional and neurobiological arousal, they also can trigger the seizure-like cinematic relivings of trauma known as flashbacks in previously traumatized people. Inresearchers at West Haven VA injected 15 veterans suffering from PTSD with yohimbine, a psychoactive drug from the bark of a South American tree that stimulates secretions of norepinephrine. Nontrauma-tized people usually feel a little heart-pounding under the influence of yohimbine; but nine of the vets suffered panic attacks and six had fullblown flashbacks.

One veteran given the drug told researchers he could see a helicopter go down in a bright flash and a trail of smoke. Other research has shown that PTSD patients, for reasons not yet understood, have 40 percent fewer of these alpha-2 receptors than normal controls. The research suggests that the brain chemistry of traumatized people may have changed, so that arousing events even those dissimilar from the original trauma can provoke flashbacks. The result is a vicious circle: Other hormonal systems especially those involving cortisol and brain opiates continue to function abnormally years after trauma. A study by Roger Pitman, van der Kolk and others found that veterans with PTSD who watched a minute video of combat scenes from Platoon registered a percent drop in pain sensitivity; their brains released natural opiates with the pain-killing equivalent of eight milligrams of morphine.

This over-activation of a natural anesthetic response, in the face of something rationally known not to be dangerous, may partly explain the numbness reported by some people with PTSD. Damage to Brain Structure The most disturbing recent neuro-science suggests that trauma may do long-lasting damage to the hippocampus, a seahorse-shaped structure deep in the brain. Much about the hippocampus remains mysterious, but it is crucial to short-term memory and may play a role in the sorting and storing of long-term memories, a process that takes about a month. Three studies found significant reductions in the size of the hippocampus in traumatized people, compared to nontraumatized controls.

The studies used Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRIa relatively new diagnostic device that produces precise, three-dimensional blueprints of the architecture of the brain. Douglas Bremner and Dennis Charney found a percent reduction in left hippocampal volume in 12 male and 5 female survivors of severe childhood abuse with PTSD, compared with carefully matched controls.

Their similar study of 26 veterans with PTSD found an 8-percent decrease in right hippocampal volume Fuck that white slut with matched controls. Nobody knows exactly how trauma damages the hippocampus, or whether people with small hippocampi are simply more prone Katy new hampshire escort develop PTSD. But if damage is done, the prime biochemical suspect is cortisol also known as hydrocortisonea hormone secreted by the adrenal glands just above the kidneys, which circulates at high levels in the bloodstream and brain for hours and sometimes days after extreme stress.

Moderate levels of cortisol help the body to release glucose into the bloodstream and reduce inflammation. In animals, moderate to high levels of cortisol are toxic to some brain cells in the hippocampus: Animal researchers have found a link between high cortisol levels over a period of weeks and the withering of dendrites the feathery branches that allow brain cells to form communication pathways and associational networks with hundreds of thousands of their neighbors. Statistics about the high rate of gun deaths in the U. These statistics also include suspected criminals shot by police. Nor are rifles, semi-automatic or otherwise, the problem.

According to the FBI, people were killed by rifles in More than 40, died in motor vehicle crashes. The overall crime rate in the United States has been falling steadily for decades. It has spiked recently in several U. The claim that politicians have failed to act in response to mass shootings is also a lie. The measure, championed by Texas Republican Sen. The man who killed 26 people at a church in Sutherland Springs, Texas, had a history of domestic violence, and should not have been able to purchase firearms. Air Force failed to put him into the national database. Yet on Saturday, thousands of marchers took to the streets to protest inaction by Washington.

They ignore the facts so that they can claim to have been ignored. The gun control movement is built on a powerful narrative. But it is a work of fiction.